Tác động của cuộc Cách mạng Khoa học
In the past decades, the modern Science – Technology Revolution (Science and Technology) has played a great role and impact on the world socio-economic development, especially in developed countries. These countries have large funds and many favorable conditions for investment in scientific and technical research as well as the application of research results in practice. Therefore, developed countries benefit more and get richer thanks to the achievements of the Scientific and Technological Revolution.
French Academy of Sciences founded in 1666
The achievements of the Scientific and Technological Revolution not only contributed to the creation of many types of machines; modern equipments; There are many inventions that have positive impacts on socio-economic development, but also many inventions that have negative impacts on socio-economic development and the environment such as: inventions of lethal weapons. people, chemicals that pollute the environment…
The Scientific and Technological Revolution brought humanity to a new civilization
The Scientific and Technological Revolution has been bringing mankind to a new civilization, called by many names: “Post-industrial civilization”, “Communication civilization”… In this civilization, people have can highly promote creative capacity in production, life, economic development, and quality of life.
The great achievements of the Scientific and Technological Revolution have fundamentally changed factors of production and life such as machinery, equipment, technology, energy, raw materials, information, medicine, and plant varieties. As a result, in the more than 60 years since World War II, humans have created more material wealth than all previous generations combined.
The information revolution helps people connect more closely and communicate more easily. Helps expose information that in the past could have been easily suppressed by authoritarian regimes
The Scientific and Technological Revolution has fundamentally changed the way people work
Thanks to the inventions and inventions of many types of modern machines and equipment, people in production industries have been transformed from physical labor to a cultured and scientific form of labor. The strong development of the Science and Technology Revolution requires workers to be trained and self-trained, constantly improving their cultural, professional skills and science and technology levels. Labor resources with high science and technology qualifications and professional skills are the most important and decisive factors for the development of the knowledge economy of the countries.
The Scientific and Technological Revolution changed the structure of the national economy
Changing the structure of economic sectors
Industries in the I . region including: agriculture, forestry and fishery tend to reduce the proportion of labor and the share in the total domestic income (Gross Domestic Production – GDP) in both developed and developing countries. Currently, in the G8 developed countries, the proportion of laborers in agriculture only accounts for 1-2% of the total number of employees, and the value of this industry’s income only accounts for 1-4% of GDP.
Sectors in Region II including industries that tend to increase rapidly in the share of GDP, the structure of industries is increasingly diverse and rapidly changing. In many developed countries, in the 1950s, the electricity industry, mining industry, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, and petrochemical industry were developed; the 60s developed the electronics industry, space industry, chemicals; the 70s developed industrial automation (robots), aerospace, man-made fiber textiles; From 1980 to present, developing the fields of informatics and telecommunications, microelectronics engineering, biotechnology, environmental technology, new energy use, aerospace industry…
Products with a high content of knowledge and technology are increasingly valuable and produced. Social products are more and more diversified in the direction of respecting people, respecting the environment, serving the tastes of consumers.
Sectors in Region III including the service sector, which tends to develop rapidly, dominating both the labor rate and the share in GDP.
Changing the form and mechanism of production organization
The organizational form of segmentation management and the two-tier management mechanism are widely applied in industrial production and service activities in many countries. Besides developing transnational companies, those with large scale and high competitiveness; Small and medium sized companies and enterprises with modern equipment and machinery are focused on developing to adapt to management capacity, technological innovation and market requirements.
From the 1980s up to now, in most developed countries and NICs countries, the traditional industries that use a lot of raw materials, fuels and labor tend to decline, such as metallurgy, shipbuilding, and manufacturing. textile industry. In contrast, new and high-value industries thrived.
The concentration of science, technology and technology investment in manufacturing industries increases rapidly, but the labor force in these industries tends to decrease, the volume of manufactured goods is increasing, the division of labor is profound, the Market competition within each country and between countries is increasingly fierce. In order to develop manufacturing, it is necessary to have developed service industries such as: commerce, finance, banking, education, research and application of science and technology, marketing, insurance, transportation, consulting, installation and maintenance of equipment and machinery… As the economy develops, people’s living standards are improved, many human services also develop, such as: health care, health care and beauty, culture and art. , sports, entertainment, travel…
The current scientific and technological revolution has also changed the product structure. Energy, raw materials, supplies, physical labor and time to create products tend to decrease. In the production processes, factors such as automation, simplification, standardization (minimizing the impact on field fatigue), costs for the environment and for services, scientific and technical labor, research and application, etc. The use of science and technology is enhanced.
Change in labor structure
In recent decades, due to the rapid development of the Science and Technology Revolution, the development of the knowledge economy has become a trend and a development goal in many countries. Therefore, in economic sectors, the number of physical laborers decreases, but labors with high levels of scientific and technological knowledge and skills increase rapidly. Due to increasing mechanization and automation in production processes, the proportion of workers in the agricultural and industrial sectors tends to decrease, while the labor rate in the service sector tends to increase.
The Scientific and Technological Revolution changed the distribution of production
Thanks to inventions and innovations, some new materials and energy are used, many industries producing high-tech products have developed, which has turned many desolate areas into industrial centers. Economically busy areas such as the southeastern region of the United States, the southeastern region of France, the southwestern region of China, the southern region of India…
The Science and Technology Revolution has contributed to improving the quality of life of people in many countries on a global scale
Thanks to the research achievements and applications of the Scientific and Technological Revolution in production as well as in life, the material and spiritual life of the people in most countries has increased, especially in developed countries. 1950: GDP per capita of developed countries reached 3,840 USD (USD), of the poorest countries reached 165 USD; in 1994: GDP per person in developed countries reached 18,130 USD, that of the poorest countries reached 300 USD. The average consumption of products per person in the US today compared to the beginning of the twentieth century has increased by 6.6 times. Living standards are improved, many diseases are repelled, so the average mortality rate of the whole country is improved. Over the past half century, thanks to the achievements of the Scientific and Technological Revolution, in general, indicators of people’s quality of life have decreased. population in many countries has increased.
Countries are becoming more and more dependent on each other
The Scientific and Technological Revolution makes countries increasingly dependent on each other for capital, raw materials, fuel, labor and science and technology. Therefore, it has made the world economy – society increasingly tend to internationalize and globalize. A world market that includes all countries with different social regimes is being formed. Countries have increased exchanges and cooperation in many fields such as economy, science and technology, health, education, culture, security, tourism, environment…
More and more socio-economic organizations of different sizes have been established, operating effectively, making countries and peoples around the world stick together more closely.
Consequences of the Scientific and Technological Revolution
Besides the great achievements that promote socio-economic development, the Scientific and Technological Revolution also has many consequences on the socio-economic development and environment for each country as well as the scale of the economy. all around the world. The achievements of the Scientific and Technological Revolution have helped Humanity to produce a large amount of goods and products, but a large amount of resources are exploited and a large amount of waste is released into the environment. resources are increasingly depleted, environmental pollution, scarcity of clean water, decline in biodiversity…
The types of raw materials and fuels that humans use are increasing day by day. In 1983 the world’s oil demand was at 59 million barrels per day. By 2004 the world’s demand for oil reached 85.5 million b/d, an annual increase of 1.4% (while the output of oil in the first quarter of 2004 was 82 million b/d and fourth quarter of 2004 was 83.6 million b/d*). World steel production in the past 10 years since 1994 has increased annually by 3.32%, each year increased by 50 million tons, World steel production in 1994 was 725.1 million tons, by 2004 it was 1,000 million tons.
Global demand for raw materials and fuels is increasing rapidly, demand exceeds supply, while mineral deposits are increasingly exhausted, unable to meet production demand. Scientists predict that the world’s oil resources can only be used for another 30-35 years. Humanity must consider the use of new sources of energy. The increased demand for raw materials has caused the prices of all input materials, services, and goods to increase rapidly. And the result has been a recession for the global economy as well as for individual countries.
In 1973, the world’s oil price increased by 400%, while the world’s economic growth in 1973 was 6.47% and in the next two years it decreased to only 1%.
From the end of 2003 until now, the world oil price has continuously increased, the price of 1 barrel from 25 USD in October 2003, on 20/7/2005 peaked to 72 USD and in January 2006 it was nearly 68 USD.
The price of scrap steel in 2004 increased by 65%, the price of iron ore increased by an average of 20% compared to 2003, the price of finished steel in 2004 increased by 25 – 30% in the Far East market and 60 – 70% in the Far East market. US market.
The prices of input materials and commodity prices increased, but because many countries around the world took measures to respond and implemented economic reform strategies, in 2004 the world economic growth rate still reached 5%, but according to experts of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the global economic growth in 2005 decreased to only 4.3%).
Many scientific inventions and innovations that have not been tested and evaluated thoroughly to see the limitations have been put into widespread application leading to great negative impacts on socio-economic efficiency as well as the environment. … As the application of new varieties, the methods of monoculture, specialized farming of the “Green Revolution” implemented in the United States, India, the Middle East of Lien Xo (old) … the period 1965 – 1970 did. degraded, deserted a large area of arable land of these countries. Or the use of plant protection substances, chemical fertilizers in agricultural production in many countries has caused environmental pollution and resource degradation. Incidents of chemical plants, explosions of nuclear power plants, and the exploitation and transportation of oil… have also caused serious environmental pollution…
Scientific inventions and innovations are also applied to the production of weapons of war, especially chemical weapons and atomic weapons to kill people and pollute the environment.
Developed countries have a lot of capital and resources to research and apply science and technology. Thus, these countries benefited more from the achievements of the Scientific and Technological Revolution and grew richer. In contrast, developing countries do not have many resources to invest in research and application of science and technology, so their economies are slow to develop and increasingly poor.
Thus, the Scientific and Technological Revolution also contributes to increasing the disparity in development levels and the gap between the rich and the poor between countries and classes in the world… GDP per capita between the richest countries and the richest countries in the world. the poorest countries in 1950 was 24 times, but in 2004 it increased to 74 times.
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